As a principal measure of the economic vitality, it is important to understand the quantity of jobs by sector within a region. It is also crucial to know the ease with which people can access those jobs. While mobility quantifies the efficiency of the movement of goods and services, accessibility focuses on people’s ability to travel to necessary or desired destinations and the convenience of that travel. Access to employment by transit calculates the number of jobs in any sector that are reachable within 30 minutes of travel by transit. This measure comprises both employment opportunities and transit level of service and utilizes transit schedule information and stop locations to quantify access to employment by the ability to reach more jobs in proximity to frequent transit service such as rail and priority bus service.
Source data for this variable was obtained from Accessibility Observatory at the University of Minnesota. Base data is derived from General Transit Specification Feed (GTFS) data which provides transit stop and scheduled travel time information. Base employment data was gathered from the Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) Origin-Destination Employment Statistics (LODES). Variables are calculated for the largest metropolitan areas in the United States where transit data information is available. The total number of jobs within 30 minutes of transit is available at the Census block geography and the average value was aggregated to the Census block group. Travel time is calculated using Census block geometric centroids origins and relies on a detailed pedestrian network and published transit schedules for service during the morning peak hour commute between 7AM and 9AM local time.
- Job access by transit = Average number of total jobs within 30 minutes transit travel time.
The MSA level value is the unweighted mean of the values of all block groups in the MSA.
This indicator was calculated by the University of Minnesota using data from the sources listed below.
- Accessibility Observatory, University of Minnesota, 2014.
- Census Bureau, Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD), 2011
- Open Street Map, 2014.
- General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS), 2014.
Dickens, M., Neff, J., & Grisby, D. (2013). 2013 Public Transportation Fact Book. American Public Transit Association.
El-Geneidy, A. M. & Levinson, D. M. (2006). Access to Destinations: Development of Accessibility Measures. Technical Report MN/RC-2006-16, Minnesota Department of Transportation.
Geurs, K. T. & Van Wee, B. (2004). Accessibility Evaluation of Land-Use and Transport Strategies: Review and Research Directions. Journal of Transport Geography, 12(2):127–140.